Management consensus of inflammatory bowel disease for the Asia-Pacific region.

  • Ouyang Q, • Tandon R, • Goh KL, • Pan GZ, • Fock KM, • Fiocchi C, • Lam SK, • Xiao SD.
  Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.
  At the present there are no large-scale epidemiologic data on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the Asia-Pacific region, but several studies have shown an increased incidence and prevalence of IBD in this region. Compared to the West, there appears to exist a time lag phenomenon. With regard to the two main forms of IBD, ulcerative colitis (UC) is more prevalent than Crohn's disease (CD). In addition to geographic differences, ethnic differences have been observed in the multiracial Asian countries. Moreover, the genetic backgrounds are different in the Asian compared to Western patients. For instance, NOD2/CARD15 variants have not been found in Asian CD patients. In general, the clinical course of IBD seems to be less severe in the Asia-Pacific region than in Western countries. Diagnosis of IBD in this region poses special problems. The lack of a gold standard for the diagnosis of IBD, and the existence of a variety of infectious enterocolitis with similar manifestations to those of IBD make the differential diagnosis particularly difficult. So far, Western diagnostic criteria have been introduced for the diagnosis of IBD. A stepwise approach to exclude non-IBD enterocolitis also must be introduced, and a definite diagnosis must include typical histological features. In some patients, follow up and therapeutic trials might be necessary to obtain a definitive diagnosis. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBD will allow the development of better diagnostic markers. The management of IBD also poses some special problems in the Asia-Pacific Region. There is often a delay in using proper medications for IBD, and alternative local remedies are still widely used. With a combination of Western guidelines and regional experiences, similar principles can be used for induction and maintenance of remission. A stepwise selection of medications is advocated depending on the extent, activity and severity of the disease. Comprehensive and individualized approaches are suggested for different IBD patients. Deeper understanding of disease pathogenesis and the unique characteristics of IBD in the Asia-Pacific region, combined with reasonable and practical guidelines for drug management and the future use of biological agents would improve the therapeutic outlook of IBD in this region.
  Report of the Asia–Pacific consensus on the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease
  This report summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of a panel of gastroenterologists practising in the Asia–Pacific region. The group recognized that although gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is less common and milder in endoscopic severity in Asia than in the West, there is nevertheless data to suggest an increasing frequency of the disease. During a 2-day workshop, the evidence for key issues in the diagnosis and clinical strategies for the management of the disease was evaluated, following which the recommendations were made and debated. The consensus report was presented at the Asia–Pacific Digestive Week 2003 in Singapore for ratification. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of erosive GERD. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of non-erosive GERD (NERD). Diagnosis therefore relies on symptoms, a positive 24-h pH study or a response to a course of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. The goals of treatment for GERD are to heal esophagitis, relieve symptoms, maintain the patient free of symptoms, improve quality of life and prevent complications. The PPI are the most effective medical treatment. Following initial treatment, on-demand therapy may be effective in some patients with NERD or mild (GI) erosive esophagitis. Anti-reflux surgery by a competent surgeon could achieve a similar outcome, although there is an operative mortality of 0.1–0.8%. The decision is dependent on the patient's preference and the availability of surgical expertise. Currently, endoscopic treatment should be performed only in the context of a clinical trial. Treatment of patients with typical GERD symptoms without alarm features in primary care could begin with PPI for 2 weeks followed by a further 4 weeks before going to on-demand therapy.
  Functional dyspepsia and Helicobacter pylori infection: A recent consensus up to 1999
  Hiroto Miwa and Nobuhiro Sato


With accumulated evidence for a close relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and many gastric disorders, the idea that this infection may invoke dyspeptic symptoms appears realistic. If curative therapy for H. pylori can bring about relief of symptoms in these patients, we would possess a new therapeutic tool for functional dyspepsia. Although there have been many clinical trials on this issue, the benefits of H. pylori treatment have been controversial. However, several large-scale clinical studies have been very recently published, and suggest a specific direction on this clinical question. From these results, the current consensus is that H. pylori infection does not directly affect symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. However, most clinical trials have been performed on Western populations, and there are few reports from Asian countries. Our recent study on the Japanese population also supported the consensus, that is, a negative relationship between H. pylori infection and symptoms in functional dyspepsia patients.

Report of the 1997 Asia Pacific Consensus Conference on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection.

  • Lam SK, • Talley NJ.

While European and United States guidelines for the management of Helicobacter pylori infection have been developed, there are no guidelines for the Asian Pacific. International experts and recognised local authorities met in Singapore in 1997 to develop appropriate guidelines, taking into account the high background prevalence of infection, high incidence rates of gastric cancer and resource limitations. Recommendations were made based on randomised controlled trials or where this was not possible, they were based on the current best available evidence or on good clinical practice. A number of acceptable diagnostic tests for infection are available throughout the region. The non-endoscopic methods of choice are the urea breath test or a locally validated antibody test. If endoscopy was to be performed, a biopsy urease test was recommended as the test of first choice, with histology recommended only if this was negative. Post treatment testing was not recommended for all patients; a urea breath test was considered the test of choice if available. All gastric and duodenal ulcer patients who are infected with H. pylori should be treated for H. pylori whether the ulcer is active or in remission. Patients requiring long term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy who have a current or recent history of dyspepsia, patients with early gastric cancer or low grade gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and patients with a family history of gastric cancer should be treated. However, it was concluded that there wasn't sufficient evidence that cure of H. pylori infection reduces the risk or prevents the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Many patients with dyspepsia in the region will request or require early upper endoscopy because of an inherent fear of gastric cancer. However, where endoscopy is not available or is too costly, alternative acceptable approaches were recommended in high risk cancer regions. While evidence is inconclusive to support treatment of H. pylori infection in non-ulcer dyspepsia, it was agreed that treatment be offered to patients with documented infection on a case-by-case basis. Treatment regimens need to attain an eradication rate of 90% or greater by per protocol analysis and 80% or greater by intention-to-treat analysis. A number of 7-day regimens were recommended based on available evidence. These regimens were considered likely to maximize the chances of successful eradication with one course of treatment, thereby reducing the risk of acquired antibiotic resistance and leading to long term cost savings.